A recent study of patients in China discovered an association between ABO blood type and SARS-CoV-2 infection status by comparing COVID-19 patients with the general population.
Authors used observational healthcare data on 1,559 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 (682 COVID-19 positive) with known blood type in the New York Presbyterian (NYP) hospital system to assess the association between ABO+Rh blood type and SARS-CoV-2 infection status, intubation, and death.
They also found a higher proportion of blood group A and a lower proportion of blood group O among COVID-19 positive patients compared to COVID-19 negative, though in both cases the result is significant only in Rh positive blood types.
Besides, the effect of blood type is not explained by risk factors they considered (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight status, and chronic cardiovascular and lung disorders). In this way, in a meta-analysis of NYP data with previously-reported data from China, they found enrichment for A and B and depletion of O blood groups among COVID-19 patients compared to the general population.
However, their data do not provide strong evidence of associations between blood group and intubation or death among COVID-19 patients.
In this preliminary observational study of data currently being collected during the outbreak, authors found new evidence of associations between B, AB, and Rh blood groups and COVID-19 and further evidence of recently-discovered associations between A and O blood groups and COVID-19.
Link to the paper: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.08.20058073
Editorial Disclaimer: information published during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic may be updated frequently to reflect the dynamic nature of current understanding.